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 Glossary of Terms

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic material of all living organisms. Your DNA stores the genetic information that your body needs to construct its cells and function.
Gene A gene is a unit of heredity that is part of your DNA. Genes contain instructions for building new proteins in the body. Your genes also hold the information which passes along genetic traits from parent to child.
Genotype Your genetic make-up, an individual’s genotype is also referred to when specifying particular genes of interest, such as genes that affect weight management.
Macronutrient Building block that provide the energy for your body-carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Nutrigenetics As part of Nutrigenomics, Nutrigenetics addresses how an individual’s make-up predisposes them to conditions which are affected by their nutrition, such as weight management.
Nutrigenomics The science of how nutrition influences the expression of genes.
SNP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (Pronounced “snip”) is a genetic variation in our DNA that is largely responsible for why humans differ from one another. GenoVive Nutrition and Fitness Genetic Profile Report gives you a profile based on a panel of SNPs that provide information on how your body reacts to food and exercise.

Key Weight Management Genes

FABP2 Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2, is a protein found in the small intestine where its key function is the absorption and intracellular transport of dietary long chain fatty acids (FA). Download a PDF with additional information on FABP2: FABP2 Fact Sheet
PPARG Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily found predominantly in adipose tissue.Download a PDF with additional information on PPARG: PPARG Fact Sheet
ADRB2 Beta-2-adrenergic receptor, is a protein found in adipocytes or fat cells, which is involved in regulating energy expenditure by stimulating lipid metabolism in response to hormones called catecholines. Download a PDF with additional information on ADRB2: ADRB2 Fact Sheet
ADRB3 Beta-3-adrenergic receptor, is predominantly expressed in visceral adipose tissue18 where its major function is in thermogenesis and lipolysis of both brown and white adipose tissues. Download a PDF with additional information on ADRB3: ADBR3 Fact Sheet
FTO Fat mass and obesity associated gene, is widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, with the highest levels found in the brain and pancreatic islets. Download a PDF with additional information on FTO: FTO Fact Sheet
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Is a cytokine induced by stress and serves as a pro-inflammatory mediator; however, IL6 also plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Download a PDF with additional information on Interleukin-6: Interleukin 6 Fact Sheet
TNFa Has a primary role in regulation of immune cells. TNFa has been found commonly to be elevated in obese individuals and might serve as a biomarker for prognosis of obesity and other related metabolic disturbances. Download a PDF with additional information on TNFa: TNFa Fact Sheet
ACE Angiotensin I-converting enzyme, plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and electrolyte balance. Download a PDF with additional information on ACE: ACE Fact Sheet
LIPC Human hepatic lipase gene is involved in lipoprotein metabolism and it was shown to respond in a dose modulated based on gender and the type of fat intake. Download a PDF with additional information on LIPC: LIPC Fact Sheet
APOA2 Apolipoprotein A-II gene promoter has been demonstrated in functional studies to have a 30% decrease in transcription and lower plasma levels of apoA-II, the second most abundant protein in HDL. Download a PDF with additional information on APOA2: APOA2 Fact Sheet
IRS1 Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene, a major mediator between the insulin receptor and phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in the insulin signaling pathway. Download a PDF with additional information on IRS1: IRS1 Fact Sheet
TCF7L2 Transcription factor 7-like 2, is the strongest genetic determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and insulin-related phenotypes to date. Download a PDF with additional information on TCF7L2: TCF7L2 Fact Sheet
GIPR Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor, widely expressed in the body. GIPR-mediated signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and obesity linked by over nutrition. Download a PDF with additional information on GIPR: GIPR Fact Sheet
ACTN3 Influences muscle function and performance. This protein is expressed exclusively in the fast glycolytic fibers of human skeletal muscles, which are responsible in generating explosive, powerful contractions. Download a PDF with additional information on ACTN3: ACTN3 Fact Sheet
eNOS Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene produces an important signaling molecule in response to physical activity induced shear stress (exercise training), it results in expansion of the blood vessels to enhance blood flow, oxygen transport, and nutrient delivery to skeletal muscles. Download a PDF with additional information on eNOS: eNOS Fact Sheet
DRD2 Is a dopamine receptor that binds the neurotransmitter dopamine to help control the brain’s reward and pleasure centers. Download a PDF with additional information on DRD2: DRD2 Fact Sheet
LEPR Is a receptor for leptin (an adipocyte-specific hormone that regulates body weight), and is involved in the regulation of fat metabolism, as well as in a novel hematopoietic pathway that is required for normal lymphopoiesis.  Download a DPF with additional information on LEPR: LEPR Fact Sheet         .
TAS2R38 Encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, a family of bitter-tasting compounds found in plants. Download a PDF with additional information on TAS2R38: TAS2R38 Fact Sheet
GLUT2 Membrane protein facilitating the transport of glucose into cells. Download a PDF with additional information on GLUT2: GLUT2 Fact Sheet
MTHFR Methyltetrahydrafolate reductase gene has been shown to result in the reduction of reductase activity. A reduction in circulating L-methyl folate leads to a number of metabolic syndromes. Without supplementation that includes foods and supplements rich in folate or folic acid to prevent the loss of lean body mass and influencing behavioral and mood changes as a result of low dopamine and serotoin. Download a PDF with additional information on MTHFR: MTHFR Fact Sheet