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Scientific References We Use

Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP2)

Baier, L.J. et al. An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 95, 1281-7 (1995).

Levy, E. et al. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. J Biol Chem 276, 39679-84 (2001).

Hegele, R.A. et al. Genetic variation of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein associated with variation in body mass in aboriginal Canadians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81, 4334-4337 (1996).

Yamada, K. et al. Association between Ala54Thr substitution of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene with insulin resistance and intra-abdominal fat thickness in Japanese men. Diabetologia 40, 706-10 (1997).

Albala, C. et al. Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Obes Res 12, 340-5 (2004).

Agren, J.J., Valve, R., Vidgren, H., Laakso, M. & Uusitupa, M. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18, 1606-10 (1998).

Thumser, Alfred E.; Moore, Jennifer Bernadette; Plant, Nick J. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: March 2014 – Volume 17 – Issue 2 – p 124–129.

Khalid Khalaf Alharbi1† , Imran Ali Khan1*† , Mohammad D Bazzi2† , Nasser M Al-Daghri3 , Tarique N Hasan4† , May Salem Alnbaheen, et al. A54T polymorphism in the fatty acid binding protein 2 studies in a Saudi population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alharbi et al. Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:61.

More Scientific References

Syed Tasleem Raza, Jalees Fatima, Faisal Ahmed, Shania Abbas, Zeashan Haider Zaidi, Seema Singh, Farzana Mahdi. Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) genes polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Northern India. Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System 2014, Vol. 15(4) 572–579.

Zhu Li, Chang-Lin Ni, Wen-yan Niu, Bao-cheng Chang and Li-Ming Chen. The intestinal fatty acid binding protein-2 Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese population. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (2015) 7:23.

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG)

Luan, J. et al. Evidence for gene-nutrient interaction at the PPARgamma locus. Diabetes 50, 686-9 (2001).

Rankinen, T. et al. The Human Obesity Gene Map: The 2005 Update. Obesity 14, 529-644 (2006).

Lindi, V.I. et al. Association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Diabetes 51, 2581-6 (2002).

Marti, A., Corbalan, M.S., Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A., Forga, L. & Martinez, J.A. CHO intake alters obesity risk associated with Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARgamma gene. J Physiol Biochem 58, 219-20 (2002).

Tun-Jen Hsiao, Eugene Lin. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene in relation to obesity and metabolic phenotypes in a Taiwanese population. Endocrine. April 2015, Volume 48, Issue 3, pp 786-793.

Cuthbert C.E., Ramdath D.D., Foster J.E. Frequency of Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene rs9939609 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma 2 Gene rs1801282 Polymorphisms among Trinidadian Neonates of Different Ethnicities and Their Relationship to Anthropometry at Birth. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2014; 7: 39-47.

Sydorchuk, A.; Sydorchuk, L.; Amosova, K.; Sokolenko, A.; Sydorchuk, I.; Sydorchuk, R. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma2 and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genes’ Polymorphisms in Abdominal Obesity and Arterial Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension: June 2015. doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000468559.33103.7a Poster Session PS28 Genetics and Molecular Biology: PDF Only Journal of Hypertension, Volume 33, e-Supplement 1, 2015.

Peter Kruzliak, Andreana P Haley, Jovana Nikolajevic Starcevic, Ludovit Gaspar and Daniel Petrovic. Polymorphisms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (rs1801282) and its coactivator-1 (rs8192673) are associated with obesity indexes in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular Diabetology (2015) 14:42.

Beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor (ADBR2)

Ellsworth, D.L. et al. Influence of the beta2-adrenergic receptor Arg16Gly polymorphism on longitudinal changes in obesity from childhood through young adulthood in a biracial cohort: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 928-37 (2002).

Bao, W. et al. Longitudinal changes in cardiovascular risk from childhood to young adulthood in offspring of parents with coronary artery disease: the Bogalusa Heart Study. JAMA 278, 1749-54 (1997).

Must, A. Morbidity and mortality associated with elevated body weight in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 445S-447S (1996).

Lange, L.A. et al. Association of adipose tissue deposition and beta-2 adrenergic receptor variants: the IRAS family study. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 449-57 (2005).

Gonzalez Sanchez, J.L. et al. The glutamine 27 glutamic acid polymorphism of the beta2-adrenoceptor gene is associated with abdominal obesity and greater risk of impaired glucose tolerance in men but not in women: a population-based study in Spain. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 59, 476-81 (2003).

Martinez, J.A. et al. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. J Nutr 133, 2549-54 (2003).

Garenc, C. et al. Effects of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene variants on adiposity: the HERITAGE Family Study. Obes Res 11, 612-8 (2003).

Hongxiu Zhang , Jie Wu, Lipeng Yu. Association of Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly Polymorphisms in Beta2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene with Obesity Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis. PLoSONE 9(6): e100489. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100489, 2014.

Neiva Leite, Leilane Lazarotto, Gerusa Eisfeld Milano, et al. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene association with overweight and asthma in children and adolescents and its relationship with physical fitness. Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition) Volume 33, Issue 4, Pages 381–386. Received 8 October 2014, Accepted 26 January 2015.

Louise F. Saliba; Rodrigo S. Reis; Ross C. Brownson, et al. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women. Genet. Mol. Biol. vol.37 no.1 Ribeirão Preto 2014.

Eisenach, J. H., Schroeder, D. R., Pavey, E. S., Penheiter, A. R., Knutson, J. N., Turner, S. T. and Joyner, M. J. (2014), Interactions between beta-2 adrenoceptor gene variation, cardiovascular control and dietary sodium in healthy young adults. J Physiol, 592: 5221–5233. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.276469.

Beta-3-Adrenergic Receptor (ADBR3)

Krief, S. et al. Tissue distribution of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in man. J Clin Invest 91, 344-9 (1993).

Arch, J.R. The brown adipocyte beta-adrenoceptor. Proc Nutr Soc 48, 215-23 (1989).

Zaagsma, J. & Nahorski, S.R. Is the adipocyte beta-adrenoceptor a prototype for the recently cloned atypical ‘beta 3-adrenoceptor’? Trends Pharmacol Sci 11, 3-7 (1990).

Clement, K. et al. Genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and an increased capacity to gain weight in patients with morbid obesity. N Engl J Med 333, 352-4 (1995).

Tchermof A et al. Obesityrelated phenotypes and the beta3 adrenoreceptor gene variant in postmenopausal women. Diabetes 48, 1425-8 (1999).

Widen, E. et al. Association of a polymorphism in the beta 3-adrenergic-receptor gene with features of the insulin resistance syndrome in Finns. N Engl J Med 333, 348-51 (1995).

Sakane, N. et al. Beta 3-adrenergic-receptor polymorphism: a genetic marker for visceral fat obesity and the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetologia 40, 200-4 (1997).

Shiwaku, K. et al. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1028-36 (2003).

Tchernof, A. et al. Impaired capacity to lose visceral adipose tissue during weight reduction in obese postmenopausal women with the Trp64Arg beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant. Diabetes 49, 1709-13 (2000).

Yoshida, T. et al. Mutation of beta 3-adrenergic-receptor gene and response to treatment of obesity. Lancet 346, 1433-4 (1995).

Brondani Letícia A., Duarte Guilherme C.K., Canani Luís H., and Crispim Daisy. The Presence of At Least Three Alleles of the ADRB3 Trp64Arg (C/T) and UCP1 −3826A/G Polymorphisms Is Associated with Protection to Overweight/Obesity and with Higher High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Caucasian-Brazilian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. February 2014, 12(1): 16-24. doi:10.1089/met.2013.0077.

Naoki Sakane, Juichi Sato, Kazuyo Tsushita, Satoru Tsujii, et al. Effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance related to beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism Trp64Arg(C/T): Results from the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program. 29 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12426.

J. Alfredo Martíneza, Fermin I. Milagroa. Genetics of weight loss: A basis for personalized obesity management. Trends in Food Science & Technology. Volume 42, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages 97–115.

Alina Kurylowicz. Stimulation of Thermogenesis via Beta-Adrenergic and Thyroid Hormone Receptors Agonists in Obesity Treatment – Possible Reasons for Therapy Resistance. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics 2015, 6:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2153-0645.1000145.

Fat Mass-Obesity Associated Gene (FTO)

Adriana Coletta and Richard B. Kreider. Genetic Profiling for Weight Loss: Potential Candidate Genes. Bioenergetics 2015, 4:2.

Boissel, S. et al. Loss-of-function mutation in the dioxygenase-encoding FTO gene causes severe growth retardation and multiple malformations. Am J Hum Genet 85, 106-11 (2009).

Frayling, T.M. et al. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 316, 889 – 894 (2007).

Rong, R. et al. Association analysis of variation in/near FTO, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX, EXT2, IGF2BP2, LOC387761, and CDKN2B with type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in Pima Indians. Diabetes 58, 478-88 (2009).

Razquin, C. et al. A 3-year intervention with a Mediterranean diet modified the association between the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO and body weight changes. Int J Obes (2009).

Rendo, T., Moleres, A. & Marti del Moral, A. Effects of the FTO Gene on Lifestyle Intervention Studies in Children. Obesity Facts 2(2009).

Tomoaki Matsuoa, Yoshio Nakatab, Kikuko Hottac, Kiyoji Tanakad. The FTO genotype as a useful predictor of body weight maintenance: Initial data from a 5-year follow-up study. Metabolism, Volume 63, Issue 7, July 2014, Pages 912–917.

Gisele K. Rodrigues, M.Sc., Cristina M.M. Resende, Ph.D., Danielle F. Durso, Ph.D., et al. A single FTO gene variant rs9939609 is associated with body weight evolution in a multiethnic extremely obese population that underwent bariatric surgery. Nutrition, Volume 31, Issues 11–12, November–December 2015, Pages 1344–1350.

Barbara H. Lourenço, Lu Qi, Walter C. Willett and Marly A. Cardoso. FTO Genotype, Vitamin D Status, and Weight Gain During Childhood. Diabetes, February 2014 vol. 63 no. 2 808-814.

Sanne P.M. Verhoef, Stefan G.J.A. Camps, Freek G. Bouwman, Edwin C.M. Mariman,

Klaas R. Westerterp. Genetic predisposition, dietary restraint and disinhibition in relation to short and long-term weight loss. Physiology & Behavior, Volume 128, 10 April 2014, Pages 247–251.

de Luis D.A., Aller R., Izaola O., Primo D., Urdiales S., Romero E. Effects of a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate Diet versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Role of a Genetic Variation in the rs9939609 FTO Gene Variant. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2015;8: 128-136.

Meisel S.F., Beeken R.J., van Jaarsveld C.H.M., Wardle J. The Association of FTO SNP rs9939609 with Weight Gain at University. Obes Facts 2015;8:243-251.

Interleukin-6 (IL6)

Wernstedt, I. et al. A common polymorphism in the interleukin-6 gene promoter is associated with overweight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1272-9 (2004).

Razquin, C. et al. A Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil may reverse the effects of the -174G/C IL6 gene variant on 3-year body weight change. Mol Nutr Food Res 54 Suppl 1, S75-82.

Pâmela F. Todendi, Elisa I. Klinger, Michele B. Ferreira.   Association of IL-6 and CRP gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (2015) 87 (2).

Raquel de Oliveira, Tamiris Invencioni Moraes, Alvaro Cerda, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, et al. ADIPOQ and IL6 variants are associated with a pro-inflammatory status in obeses with cardiometabolic dysfunction. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome (2015) 7:34.

Haiming Cao. Adipocytokines in obesity and metabolic disease. J Endocrinol February 1, 2014 220 T47-T59.

Ljiljana Lukic, Nebojsa M. Lalic, Natasa Rajkovic, Aleksandra Jotic, et al. Hypertension in Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients is Associated with Increases in Insulin Resistance and IL-6 Cytokine Levels: Potential Targets for an Efficient Preventive Intervention. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3586-3598.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFa)

Locksley, R.M., Killeen, N. & Lenardo, M.J. The TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamilies: Integrating Mammalian Biology. Cell 104, 487-501 (2001).

Moller, D.E. Potential Role of TNF-[alpha] in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 11, 212-217 (2000).

Sorensen, T.I. et al. Genetic polymorphisms and weight loss in obesity: a randomised trial of hypo-energetic high- versus low-fat diets. PLoS Clin Trials 1, e12 (2006).

Grimble, R.F. et al. The ability of fish oil to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy men is associated with polymorphisms in genes that influence tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 454-9 (2002).

Seyed Reza Mirhafeza, Amir Avanb, Alireza Pasdarb, Elaheh Kazemie, eta l. Association of tumor necrosis factor-α promoter G-308A gene polymorphism with increased triglyceride level of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Gene, Volume 568, Issue 1, 15 August 2015, Pages 81–84.

Leticia Goni, Fermín I Milagro, Marta Cuervo, J Alfredo Martínez. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and Dna methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight. Nutrition Reviews, 72 (11) 673-690, 1 November 2014.

Angiotensin 1-Converting Enzyme (ACE)

Erdos, E.G. Angiotensin I converting enzyme and the changes in our concepts through the years. Lewis K. Dahl memorial lecture. Hypertension 16, 363-70 (1990).

Hamada, T. et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and obesity-related metabolic changes in response to low-energy diets in obese women. Nutrition 27, 34-9.

Suchanek, P., Hubacek, J.A., Kralova Lesna, I., Pinekerova, V. & Adamkova, V. Actigenetic of ACE gene polymorphism in Czech obese sedentary females. Physiol Res 58 Suppl 1, S47-52 (2009).

Woods, D.R., Humphries, S.E. & Montgomery, H.E. The ACE I/D polymorphism and human physical performance. Trends Endocrinol Metab 11, 416-20 (2000).

Ji L, Cai X, Zhang L, Fei L, Wang L, Su J, et al. (2013) Association between Polymorphisms in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Genes and Essential Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72701. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072701.

Human Heptic Lipase Gene (LIPC)

Botma, G.J., Verhoeven, A.J. & Jansen, H. Hepatic lipase promoter activity is reduced by the C-480T and G-216A substitutions present in the common LIPC gene variant, and is increased by Upstream Stimulatory Factor. Atherosclerosis 154, 625-32 (2001).

Deeb, S.S., Zambon, A., Carr, M.C., Ayyobi, A.F. & Brunzell, J.D. Hepatic lipase and dyslipidemia: interactions among genetic variants, obesity, gender, and diet. J Lipid Res 44, 1279-86 (2003).

Carr, M.C. et al. A hepatic lipase gene promoter polymorphism attenuates the increase in hepatic lipase activity with increasing intra-abdominal fat in women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 2701-7 (1999).

Ordovas, J.M. et al. Dietary fat intake determines the effect of a common polymorphism in the hepatic lipase gene promoter on high-density lipoprotein metabolism: evidence of a strong dose effect in this gene-nutrient interaction in the Framingham Study. Circulation 106, 2315-21 (2002).

Todorova, B. et al. The G-250A promoter polymorphism of the hepatic lipase gene predicts the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 2019-23 (2004).

Nora L. Nock. Genetics of Common Lipid Disorders. 12 September 2015 pp 1-39.

Dietary Fat Intake Modifies the Effect of a Common Variant in the LIPC Gene on Changes

in Serum Lipid Concentrations during a Long-Term Weight-Loss Intervention Trial. Xu, Min; Ng, San San; Qi, Lu, et al. J Nutr 2015; 145:1289–94.

Apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2)

Mohammad M.H. Abdullah, Peter J.H. Jones, Peter K. Eck. Nutrigenetics of cholesterol metabolism: observational and dietary intervention studies in the postgenomic era. Nutrition Reviews, Volume 73, Issue 8 Pp. 523 – 543.

Laurence D Parnell,, Britt A Blokker, Hassan S Dashti, Paula-Dene Nesbeth, et al. CardioGxE, a catalog of gene-environment interactions for cardiometabolic traits. BioData Mining 2014, 7:21.

Corella, D. et al. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Arch Intern Med 169, 1897-906 (2009).

Corella, D. et al. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 666-75.

Lara-Castro, C., Hunter, G.R., Lovejoy, J.C., Gower, B.A. & Fernandez, J.R. Apolipoprotein A-II polymorphism and visceral adiposity in African-American and white women. Obes Res 13, 507-12 (2005).

Duesing, K. et al. Evaluating the association of common APOA2 variants with type 2 diabetes. BMC Med Genet 10, 13 (2009).

Neda Noorshahia, Gity Sotoudehb, Mahmoud Djalalia, Mohamad Reza Eshraghianc, et al. APOA II genotypes frequency and their interaction with saturated fatty acids consumption on lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Nutrition, 16 July 2015

Keramat L, Eshraghian M, Djalali M, Sotoudeh G, Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh H, Fariba Koohdani. Does apolipoprotein A-II polymorphism interact with the association of obesity and serum inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes patients? J Nutr Sci & Diet 2015; 1(2): 107-13.

Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (IRS1)

Sesti, G. et al. Defects of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) system in human metabolic disorders. The FASEB Journal, Vol. 15(12) 2099-2111 (2001).

Rung, J. et al. Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Nat Genet 41, 1110-1115 (2009).

Ohshige, T. et al. Association of new loci identified in European genome-wide association studies with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese. PLoS One 6, e26911.

Kilpelainen, T.O. et al. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile. Nat Genet 2011 Jun 26;43(8):753-60.

Qi, Q. et al. Insulin receptor substrate 1 gene variation modifies insulin resistance response to weight-loss diets in a 2-year randomized trial: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial. Circulation 124, 563-71, 2011

Selma M. Soyal, Thomas Felder, Simon Auer, et al., “Associations of Haplotypes Upstream of IRS1 with Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Preclinical Atherosclerosis, and Skeletal Muscle LOC646736 mRNA Levels,” Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 2015, Article ID 405371, 11 pages, 2015.

Qiuyan Li, Yuandong Qiao, Chuntao Wang, Guangfa Zhang, Xuelong Zhang, Lidan Xu. Associations between two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1801278 and rs2943641) of insulin receptor substrate 1 gene and type 2 diabetes susceptibility: a meta-analysis. Endocrine, pp 1-11, 18 November 2015.

Kaul Nabodita and Ali Sher.   Genes, Genetics, and Environment in Type 2 Diabetes: Implication in Personalized Medicine. DNA and Cell Biology. October 23, 2015. Online.

Qi, Lu. “Personalized nutrition and obesity.” Annals of medicine 46.5 (2014): 247-252.

Transcription Factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2)

Phillips, C.M. et al. Dietary saturated fat, gender and genetic variation at the TCF7L2 locus predict the development of metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 23, 239-244, 2009.

Jin, T. & Liu, L. The Wnt signaling pathway effector TCF7L2 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mol Endocrinol 22, 2383-92 (2008).

Savic, D. et al. Modulation of TCF7l2 expression alters behavior in mice. PLoS One 6, e26897 2009.

Savic, D. et al. Alterations in TCF7L2 expression define its role as a key regulator of glucose metabolism. Genome Res 21, 1417-25, 2008.

Hindy, G. et al. Role of TCF7L2 risk variant and dietary fibre intake on incident type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 55, 2646-54, 2008.

Dupuis, J. et al. New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk. Nat Genet 42, 105-16, 2008.

Franklin, C.S. et al. The TCF7L2 diabetes risk variant is associated with HbA(1)(C) levels: a genome-wide association meta-analysis. Ann Hum Genet 74, 471-8, 2008.

Grau, K. et al. TCF7L2 rs7903146-macronutrient interaction in obese individuals’ responses to a 10-wk randomized hypoenergetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr, 2009.27947 (2009).

Haupt, A. et al. Gene Variants of TCF7L2 Influence Weight Loss and Body Composition During Lifestyle Intervention in a Population at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes, Vol. 59 747-750, 2009.

Mattei, J., Qi, Q., Hu, F.B., Sacks, F.M. & Qi, L. TCF7L2 genetic variants modulate the effect of dietary fat intake on changes in body composition during a weight-loss intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 1129-36, 2009.

Hüsamettin GÜL, Yeşim AYDIN SON , Cengizhan AÇIKEL. Discovering missing heritability and early risk prediction for type 2 diabetes: a new perspective for genome-wide association study analysis with the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals’ Follow-Up Study. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, (2014) 44: 946-954.

Edward A Ruiz-Narváez. Redundant enhancers and causal variants in the TCF7L2 gene. European Journal of Human Genetics (2014) 22, 1243–1246.

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor (GIPR)

Usdin, T.B., Mezey, E., Button, D.C., Brownstein, M.J. & Bonner, T.I. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor, a member of the secretin-vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor family, is widely distributed in peripheral organs and the brain. Endocrinology. 1993 Dec;133(6):2861-70.

Irwin, N. & Flatt, P.R. Evidence for beneficial effects of compromised gastric inhibitory polypeptide action in obesity-related diabetes and possible therapeutic implications. Diabetologia 52, 1724-31 (2009).

Irwin, N. & Flatt, P.R. Therapeutic potential for GIP receptor agonists and antagonists. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23, 499-512 (2009).

Sonestedt, E. et al. Genetic Variation in the Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Modifies the Association between Carbohydrate and Fat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the Malm Diet and Cancer Cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May;97(5):E810-8.

Miyawaki, K. et al. Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity. Nat Med 8, 738-42 (2002).

Flatt, P.R. Dorothy Hodgkin Lecture 2008. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) revisited: a new therapeutic target for obesity-diabetes? Diabet Med 25, 759-64 (2008).

Saxena, R. et al. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge. Nat Genet 42, 142-8.

Burgdorf, K.S. et al. Association studies of novel obesity-related gene variants with quantitative metabolic phenotypes in a population-based sample of 6,039 Danish individuals. Diabetologia 55, 105-13.

Qi, Q., Bray, G.A., Hu, F.B., Sacks, F.M. & Qi, L. Weight-loss diets modify glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor rs2287019 genotype effects on changes in body weight, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 506-13.

Kelei Li, Tao Huang, Duo Li. Gene–Diet Interaction on Body Weight Maintenance. Genetics. September 2015, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 209-213.

Kazuhiro Nakayama, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Supichaya Boonvisut, Saho Makishima, Hiroshi Miyashita, Sadahiko Iwamoto. Common variants of GIP are associated with visceral fat accumulation in Japanese adults. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Vol. 307 no. 11, 1 December 2014.

Qi, Lu. Gene–diet interaction and weight loss. Current Opinion in Lipidology: February 2014 – Volume 25 – Issue 1 – p 27–34.

J. Alfredo Martinez, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Wim H. M. Saris & Arne Astrup. Personalized weight loss strategies—the role of macronutrient distribution. Nature Reviews Endocrinology 10, 749–760 (2014).

Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3)

Eynon, N. et al. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism across three groups of elite male European athletes. PLoS One 7, e43132.

MacArthur, D.G. & North, K.N. ACTN3: A genetic influence on muscle function and athletic performance. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35, 30-4 (2007).

Moran, C.N. et al. Association analysis of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and complex quantitative body composition and performance phenotypes in adolescent Greeks. Eur J Hum Genet 15, 88-93 (2007).

North, K.N. et al. A common nonsense mutation results in alpha-actinin-3 deficiency in the general population. Nat Genet 21, 353-4 (1999).

Simoneau, J.A. & Bouchard, C. Genetic determinism of fiber type proportion in human skeletal muscle. Faseb Journal 9, 1091-5 (1995).

MacArthur, D.G. & North, K.N. A gene for speed? The evolution and function of alpha-actinin-3. Bioessays 26, 786-95 (2004).

McCauley, T., Mastana, S.S., Hossack, J., Macdonald, M. & Folland, J.P. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D and alpha-actinin 3 R577X genotypes and muscle functional and contractile properties. Exp Physiol 94, 81-9 (2009).

Niemi, A.K. & Majamaa, K. Mitochondrial DNA and ACTN3 genotypes in Finnish elite endurance and sprint athletes. Eur J Hum Genet 13, 965-9 (2005).

Yang, N. et al. ACTN3 genotype is associated with human elite athletic performance. Am J Hum Genet 73, 627-31 (2003).

Papadimitriou, I.D., Papadopoulos, C., Kouvatsi, A. & Triantaphyllidis, C. The ACTN3 gene in elite Greek track and field athletes. Int J Sports Med 29, 352-5 (2008).

Gineviciene, V., Pranculis, A., Jakaitiene, A., Milasius, K. & Kucinskas, V. Genetic variation of the human ACE and ACTN3 genes and their association with functional muscle properties in Lithuanian elite athletes. Medicina (Kaunas) 47, 284-90.

Isabelle Riedl, Megan E. Osler, Boubacar Benziane, Alexander V. Chibalin, Juleen R. Zierath. Association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle. Physiological Reports, Vol. 3 no. e1231416, March 2015.

Deschamps CL, Connors KE, Klein MS, Johnsen VL, Shearer J, Vogel HJ, et al. (2015) The ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism Is Associated with Cardiometabolic Fitness in Healthy Young Adults. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130644. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130644.

Silva MS, Bolani W, Alves CR, Biagi DG, Lemos JR Jr, da Silva JL. Elimination of Influences of the ACTN3 R577X Variant on Oxygen Uptake by Endurance Training in Healthy Individuals. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2015, 10, 636 – 641.

R. M. Erskine, A. G. Williams, D. A. Jones, C. E. Stewart and H. Degens. The individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes on muscle phenotypes before and after strength training . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 642–648, August 2014.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene (eNOS)

Green, D.J. Exercise training as vascular medicine: direct impacts on the vasculature in humans. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 37, 196-202 (2009).

Gao, Y. The multiple actions of NO. Archiv – European Journal of Physiology 459, 829-839.

Guidry, M.A. et al. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS3) +894 G>T Associates with Physical Activity and Muscle Performance among Young Adults. International Scholarly Research Network – ISRN Vascular Medicine 1-7 (2012). doi:10.5402/2012/901801

Negrao, M.V. et al. Exercise training improves muscle vasodilatation in individuals with T786C polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene. Physiol Genomics 42A, 71- 77, 2010.

Ruiz, J.R. et al. Can we identify a power-oriented polygenic profile? J. Appl. Physiol 108 561-566 (2010).

Hela Ben Nasr, Saloua Dimassi, Refka M’hadhbi, Haithem Debbabi, et al. Functional G894T (rs1799983) polymorphism and intron-4 VNTR variant of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) gene are susceptibility biomarkers of obesity among Tunisians. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice online 5 May 2015.

Bruno M. Silvaa, Thales C. Barbosaa, Fabricia J. Nevesa, et al. eNOS gene haplotype is indirectly associated with the recovery of cardiovascular autonomic modulation from exercise. Autonomic Neuroscience, Volume 186, December 2014, Pages 77–84.

Carlos H. Sponton, Rodrigo Esposti, Cynara M. Rodovalho, Maycon J. Ferreira, Aline P. Jarrete, Chadi P. Anaruma, Mauricio Bacci Jr., Angelina Zanesco. The presence of the NOS3 gene polymorphism for intron 4 mitigates the beneficial effects of exercise training on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in adults.   American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 15 June 2014 Vol. 306 no. 12, H1679-H1691.

Fat Mass-Obesity Associated Gene (FTO)

Frayling, T.M. et al. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 316, 889 – 894 (2007).

Rong, R. et al. Association analysis of variation in/near FTO, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX, EXT2, IGF2BP2, LOC387761, and CDKN2B with type 2 diabetes and related quantitative traits in Pima Indians. Diabetes 58, 478-88 (2009).

Wardle, J. et al. Obesity Associated Genetic Variation in FTO Is Associated with Diminished Satiety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep;93(9):3640-3.

Karra, E. et al. A link between FTO, ghrelin, and impaired brain food-cue responsivity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 123(3), 3539-3551 (2013).

Nadia Micali, Alison E. Field, Janet L. Treasure and David M. Evans. Are obesity risk genes associated with binge eating in adolescence? Obesity, Volume 23, Issue 8, pages 1729–1736, August 2015.

Clare H. Llewellyn, PhD; Maciej Trzaskowski, PhD, MSc; Cornelia H. M. van Jaarsveld, PhD; Robert Plomin, PhD; Jane Wardle, PhD. Satiety Mechanisms in Genetic Risk of Obesity. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(4): 338-344.

Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2)

Comings, D.E., Gade, R., MacMurray, J.P., Muhleman, D. & Peters, W.R. Genetic variants of the human obesity (OB) gene: association with body mass index in young women, psychiatric symptoms, and interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene. Mol Psychiatry 1, 325-35 (1996).

Wang, G.J., Volkow, N.D., Thanos, P.K. & Fowler, J.S. Similarity between obesity and drug addiction as assessed by neurofunctional imaging: a concept review. J Addict Dis 23, 39-53 (2004).

Heber, D. & Carpenter, C.L. Addictive genes and the relationship to obesity and inflammation. Mol Neurobiol 44, 160-5.

Fetissov, S.O. & Meguid, M.M. On dopamine, D2 receptor, and Taq1A polymorphism in obesity and anorexia. Nutrition 25, 132-3 (2009).

Noble, E.P. The DRD2 gene in psychiatric and neurological disorders and its phenotypes. Pharmacogenomics 1, 309-33 (2000).

Leptin Receptor (LEPR)

Répásy J., Bokor S., Erhardt É., Molnár D. Association of Gln223 Arg polymorphism of the leptin receptor gene with indicators of energy expenditure in obese children. Nutrition 30(7-8):837-40 (2014).

Traurig, M.T., Perez, J.M., Ma, L., et al. Variants in the LEPR gene are norminally associated with higher BMI and lower 24-h energy expenditure in Pima Indians. Obesity 20, 2426-2430 (2012).

Farooqi, I.S., O’Railly, S. Mutations in ligands and receptors of the leptin-melanocortin pathway that lead to obesity. Nature Online 4 (2008).

Mette Hollensted, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Christian Theil Have, Niels Grarup, et al. Common variants in LEPR, IL6, AMD1, and NAMPT do not associate with risk of juvenile and childhood obesity in Danes: a case–control study. BMC Medical Genetics 2015, 16:105.

Taste receptor 2 member 38 (TAS2R38)

Tepper, B.J. 6-n-Propylthiouracil: a genetic marker for taste, with implications for food preference and dietary habits. Am J Hum Genet 63, 1271-6 (1998).

Tepper, B.J. & Nurse, R.J. PROP taster status is related to fat perception and preference. Ann N Y Acad Sci 855, 802-4 (1998).

Duffy, V.B. & Bartoshuk, L.M. Food acceptance and genetic variation in taste. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 647-55 (2000).

Drewnowski, A., Henderson, S.A., Shore, A.B. & Barratt-Fornell, A. Nontasters, tasters, and supertasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and hedonic response to sweet. Physiol Behav 62, 649-55 (1997).

Glucose Transport Protein (GLUT2)

Barroso, I., Lan, J., Middelberg, R. et al. Candidate Gene Association Study in Type 2 Diabetes Indicates a Role for Genes Involved in b-Cell Function as well as Insulin Action.   PloS Biology Vol 1(1), 041- 055 (2003).

Eny, K., Wolever, MS, et al. Genetic variation in Glucose Transporter type 2 is associated with intake of sugars in 2 distinct populations. Physiol Genomics (2008) 33:355 – 360.

Florez, JC, Jablonski, KA, McAteer, JB. et al. Effects of Genetic Variants Previously Associated with Fasting Glucose and Insulin in the Diaetes Prevention Program.   PloS One Vol 7(9), e44424 (2012).

Stolarczyk, E., Guissard, C., Michau, A., et al. Detection of extracellular glucose by GLUT2 contributes to hypothalamic control of food intake. Am J. Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298: e1078 – e1087 (2010).

Eny, K., Wolever, MS, et al. Genetic variation in TAS1R2 (Ile191Val) is associated with consumption of sugars in overweight and obese individuals in 2 distinct populations. Am J Clin Nutr (2010) 92:1501-1501.

Methyltetrahydrafolate Reductase Gene (MTHFR)

Di Renzo, L., Marsella, L.T., Sarlo, F., Soldati, L., et al. C677T Gene Polymorphism of MTHFR and Metabolic Syndrome: Response to Dietary Intervention. Journal of Translational Medicine 12:329 (2014).

Stahl, Steven. L-Methlyfolate: A Vitamin for Your Monoamines. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69:9 (2008).

Yang, J., Liu, J., Liu, J, Li, W, et al. Genetic Association Study with Metabolic Syndrom and Metabolic-Related Traints in a Cross-Sectional Sample and a 10-Year Longitudinal Sample of Chinese Elderly Population. Public Library of Science One 9 (6), e100548 (2014).

Marini, N.J., Gin, J, et al. The Prevalence of Folate-Remedial MTHFR Enzyme Variant in Humans. PNAS 105 (2008).

Yang, B., Fan, S., Zhi, X, et al. Association of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case-Control Study in Northern China. International Journal of Molecular Science 15(12): 21687 (2014).

Yang, B., Fan, S., Zhi, X., et al. Associations of MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome: A Case-Control Study in Northern China. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15(12):21687-702 (2014).