Chrononutrition acknowledges the significant relationship between the human biological clock and metabolism. It is known that the circadian rhythm is closely related to metabolic systems such as; glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as ghrelin secretion and colonic motility (Hideaki Oike, 2014). Intrinsic to the regulation of the human clock is the expression of a number of genes including; CLOCK, BMA11, PER and CRY (J. Lopez-Minguez, 2016).
This has led to discoveries in the field of nutrigenetics identifying a number of genetic variants associated with chronodisruption – whereby regular circadian rhythms are disrupted by environmental influences such as; shift work, jet lag, too much light exposure at rest times or nocturnal eating. Due to the known link to metabolism, chronodisruption may therefore pose an increased risk of metabolic disorders such as; type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity (M.D. Corbalan-Tutaua, 2015).
The most extensively researched variant to date is the CLOCK variant 3111T/C. Many studies have shown a correlation between the minor C allele, chronodisruption and obesity. Notably, a study involving 500 overweight and obese participants showed those carrying the C allele were more likely to sleep less than 6 hours a day and were also more resistant to weight loss efforts (Garaulet M, 2010). This may in part be explained by higher plasma concentrations of the hunger hormone, ghrelin, found in carriers of the C variant (Marta Garaulet C. S.-M.-C., 2011). A stronger hunger signal may affect the ability to comply with a dietary programme and therefore result in resistance to weight loss.
Some promising studies have shown how changing diet and lifestyle behaviours may reduce the deleterious effect of the C variant. For example, the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study showed that the deleterious effect of C variants on waist circumference were only apparent when participants consumed more than 11.8% of energy from saturated fat (Marta Garaulet Y.-C. L.-Q., 2009). Furthermore, it has been found that ‘late eaters’ consuming their mid-day meal typically after 3pm were less likely to lose weight effectively compared to ‘early eaters’ (before 3pm) consuming exactly the same amount of calories in a day (J. Lopez-Minguez, 2016).
These findings pose significance in personalised nutrition treatment, particularly with clients who carry the minor C allele, displaying chronodisruption and struggling to lose weight. Such information provides a more than useful predictor for weight loss treatment and assessing the need for chrononutrition therapy as part of treatment. So far, mindful eating, earlier main meal consumption, earlier bed routine as well as increased physical activity are all possible approaches to provide targetted support to variant carriers.
To find out whether your client would benefit from re-setting their circadian clock to help them to lose weight, why not offer them a Genovive test and fine-tune your approach.
Garaulet M, C. M. (2010). CLOCK gene is implicated in weight reduction in obese patients participating in a dietary programme based on the Mediterranean diet. International Journal of Obesity, Mar;34(3):516-23.
Hideaki Oike, c. a. (2014). Nutrients, Clock Genes, and Chrononutrition. Current Nutrition Reports, 3(3): 204–212.
- Lopez-Minguez, P. G.-A. (2016). Circadian rhythms, food timing and obesity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society.
M.D. Corbalan-Tutaua, P. G.-A. (2015). Toward a chronobiological characterization of obesity and metabolic. Clinical Nutrition, 34; 477-483.
Marta Garaulet, C. S.-M.-C. (2011). Ghrelin, Sleep Reduction and Evening Preference: Relationships to CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and Weight Loss. PLoS ONE, 6(2): e17435. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017435.
Marta Garaulet, Y.-C. L.-Q. (2009). CLOCK genetic variation and metabolic syndrome risk: modulation by monounsaturated fatty acids. American Society for Nutrition, 90(6)1466-1475.
For the past 20 years, Pokémon has been ahead of the heard in the gaming industry. Until recently the game was limited to catching, training, trading and battling Pokémon’s on your Nintendo. Recently, Niantic partnered with The Pokémon Company and Nintendo and launched Pokémon Go. Pokémon Go’s “augmented reality” uses the magical world of Pokémon to get people out of their houses and exercising. The general goal of the game is to catch as many different kinds of Pokémon, also known as pocket monsters, as possible.
Pokémon Go has been an instant success among all age ranges. Players use their Smartphone’s to walk around their city in search of Pokémon’s. The game has created a new social community of users entranced by this “augmented reality”. It’s very likely you’ve already spotted some of these gamers with Smartphone’s in hand, chasing imaginary critters. Players are joining together by reaching out to others to find out where they can catch their next Pokémon. In addition to the social aspects, the game has also proven several health benefits. It is taking people out of their normal comfort zones and getting them to go out and interact with others.
The Added Health Benefits of Pokémon Go
Pokémon Go encourages people to displace the hours usually spent on the sofa by getting up and active. The built-in incentives get players to walk extra kilometers at a time to gain rewards. Some gamers are already saying that they feel more motivated to get in physical activity with this game than the average activity trackers. The activity company Jawbone says the average player’s step count has nearly doubled since the game’s July 6th release. This probably has something to do with the game’s rewards features. Other added health benefits include increased energy and blood flow resulting in increased mood and confidence. Pokémon Go tricks it’s users into getting exercise in without even realizing it. It is much easier to get someone to walk a mile, or two, if they have a goal in mind.
Pokémon Go is not all fun and games. With eyes glued to their Smartphone’s it’s no wonder there have been several reports of users suffering injuries while playing this game. The most common injuries include walking into trees, twisting ankles and mishaps with revolving doors. This game has caused pedestrians to be struck, car accidents and robberies.
We encourage Pokémon Go players to be aware of their surroundings, look both ways before crossing the street, play with friends, and do not play while driving.
New research has found that eggs, fat spreads, and potatoes are not as bad as people think and might actually be healthy. With nutritional guidelines constantly changing, it is hard to keep up with the latest health trends. The following 5 foods have been perceived as unhealthy, however new research suggests otherwise. The research was based on the general public, so consult with your DNA report and healthcare provider before changing your diet.
Here is a look at some of the so called “bad foods” that are actually good for you:
- Eggs – For decades, eggs were believed to have negative effects on the heart. One large egg has 185 milligrams of dietary cholesterol, which is believed to add to levels of high blood cholesterol. However, for the last two decades, research has shown that when dietary cholesterol is consumed in normal amounts, it does not have much influence on a person’s blood cholesterol levels. The record has been set straight by nutrition experts, arguing that eggs are a good source of protein, several vitamins and minerals, and healthy fats.
- Potatoes – This is a starchy food that gets converted to glucose, which makes it raise the blood sugar in your body. But did you know that potatoes are also loaded with additional nutrients? One medium-sized potato can provide you with up to 30% of your daily Vitamin B6, 50% of your Vitamin C, and 25% of potassium requirements. Not a fan of potatoes? Try sweet potatoes, they’re rich in antioxidants.
- Dairy Foods – These were once a staple in people’s daily diets, but now milk, cheese, butter, and yogurt are not consumed in the same amounts due to conflicting health messages. Although dairy products are rich in calcium and protein, you need to choose the products you eat carefully as some contain high amounts of saturated fat per serving. However, although it is important to avoid a diet that is high in saturated fats, it is also good to include dairy products in your regular diet as long as you make sure that your intake of fats and calories is reasonable.
- Coffee – Too much coffee can upset your digestion, leaving you with IBS, gas and it can have a laxative effect. It can also make you jittery and increase anxiety and stress levels, and give you bad breath. However, research has shown that coffee in moderation can aid in weight loss, improve health, and enhance performance. Some studies have even shown that it can protect you against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
- Coconut Oil – Coconut oil has a bad reputation because it is a saturated fat. However, it is a medium chain fatty acid that is easily digested and converted into ketones, which helps burn fat. Coconut oil has been shown to have many benefits, from aiding weight loss to boosting the immune system.
Experts say the secret to a healthy diet is moderation. Most foods have some health benefits and it is important that your body receives all the nutrients it needs.
Most diets instruct you to avoid fried food. But what happens when you crave it and you can’t kick the craving? Is eating it in moderation okay? Just a fry every once and a while? You may or may not like the answer, depending on who you ask. Of course, we suggest you look at your DNA and see what your body wants, although here’s a general guideline.
Fried food is unhealthy if eaten in excess. Fats, if eaten in moderation, are a requirement for a healthy diet. Foods like French fries and onion rings have very little nutritional value and more fat than necessary, although a bit of butter on toast or a slice of cheese in a sandwich probably won’t hurt you if you eat healthily the rest of the day.
It’s All in the Fat
For the most part, fat is an important part of your diet. However, not all fats are created equally. For instance, trans-fats and saturated fats are the worst while fats from fish, like omega-3 fatty acids are the best for you.
Moderation is important. So, try to keep your cravings in check and prevent yourself from going overboard. If you’re going to order a pizza, order extra veggies on it, and plan to share. Alternatively if you’re alone, put three-quarters of it away before you eat to help you prevent over-eating.
Similarly, if you’re getting your fats from oils, be sure to use healthier oils.
Pure olive oil is the healthiest option of oil along with peanut oil, though they may impart a certain flavor that may not be desirable or go with some dishes. In that case, if you aren’t averse to using chemically extracted oils, you can always use soybean, safflower, and sunflower oils. These are the safer options of oils, and they are much cheaper and relatively more affordable than pure olive oil.
Getting the Frying Right
If you do wish to eat deep fried food, you got to keep a few tips in mind. The oil should be heated to a perfect temperature. If the oil is smoking, it’s too hot and it will burn your dish. However, if it’s not hot enough, the oil will be absorbed into the food which will make it less healthy.
Make sure you use an oil that is good for your body. Whether your DNA shows that olive or peanut oil is preferred, shop smart.
If you are going to be deep fry your food, you may find it a bit expensive. To help decrease the costs, you can re-use the oil to sauté or fry other foods. To keep the oil for another time, strain the solids from it and refrigerate.
Be sure to put away your oil if it isn’t in use. Heat and light cause oil to spoil and become rancid which makes it a very unhealthy option and will go against your diet.
When it comes to seafood, you will find that there are numerous misconceptions. It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction. However, it is important to make sure that you understand the truth to ensure that you are getting the best of what seafood has to offer. Here’s a look at some of the most common misconceptions about seafood and the real truth about them.
Misconception: Avoiding seafood can help lower blood cholesterol – In general, seafood contains cholesterol in high levels, but it is low in saturated fats. Cholesterol that is found in seafood and other meats does not have a significant effect on blood cholesterol in most people. Trans fatty acids and saturated fats play the largest role in increasing blood cholesterol, not dietary cholesterol.
Misconception: You should lower your intake of fish because it contains mercury – People are worried about eating fish after the FDA’s 2004 seafood advisory. It should however be kept in mind that the advisory was for pregnant, nursing women and young children who are prone to mercury toxicity – it was not meant for the general masses. This means that you have nothing to fear from fish. If you are wary of mercury, keep away from fish that contain high levels of it, such as king mackerel, swordfish, shark, and tilefish.
Misconception: Fatty fish are the best – While it is a fact that fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring, and sardines have high omega-3 fatty acid content, which protects your heart, it is important to keep in mind that there are some fattier fish, like farmed salmon, that have higher PCB levels. PCBs are harmful chemicals that were banned in 1977. Therefore, do not look for a fatter fillet; instead, you should look for wild fish which are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids.
Misconception: Eating fish and dairy together has an adverse effect on health – According to experts; this is far from the truth. This misconception has been around for decades, with people believing that skin conditions can occur as a result of eating seafood and milk at the same time. There is no scientific evidence to prove this.
There are many more misconceptions regarding seafood, and it’s important to make sure that you know what is true and what is false. Get your facts straight before avoiding fish. Seafood is a rich source of many nutrients and may be part of your regular diet. Talk to your healthcare provider and consult your DNA report before deciding to make changes in your diet when it comes to seafood.